It is the alteration or difficulty to perform the swallowing process safely and effectively . Dysphagia is a symptom and can be secondary to many different pathologies. It can appear due to structural alterations (structural dysphagia), usually secondary to tumors (head and neck and esophageal tumors), or due to impaired swallowing function (neurogenic dysphagia), caused by neurological pathologies (Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Stroke, Parkinson's disease, etc.). The difficulty in swallowing can appear with foods of different textures, generally the dysphagia to liquids orients us to a neurological cause and the dysphagia to solid foods usually indicates a structural problem.
It is very important to make a correct evaluation of this symptom, since not swallowing safely can have consequences such as respiratory infections by aspiration of food, or in some cases even dehydration and malnutrition.
There are different tests to assess dysphagia , the most commonly used is the volume-viscosity test (MECV-V), and tests such as videofluoroscopy to assess at what stage of swallowing there are problems. Once the existence of dysphagia is confirmed, it is necessary to evaluate which texture is appropriate for the patient, with which a safe swallowing is achieved.
In a first phase the administration of thickeners such as Bi1 Clear or Bi1 espesante may be sufficient to increase the consistency of liquid foods and avoid aspiration episodes.
If the dysphagia is aggravated and hinders the intake of any liquid or solid or semi-solid food, the use of feeding probes will be necessary, either through a nasoenteral probe or an ostomy. Taking into account the energy and protein needs, a normocaloric and normoproteic nutrition with fiber (Bi1 via fiber), a hypercaloric and hyperproteic with fiber (Bi1 via hp / hc) or a diabetic (Bi1 via diacare) will be scheduled.
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