The progressive aging of the population worldwide due to the increase in life expectancy has made more and more people over 70 years old. frail elderly is called the person at risk of disability. Age does not determine the presence of fragility, a person of 70 years can be a fragile old man and, nevertheless, a person of 90 years is not.
This entity is associated with aging due to the loss of functional reserve and muscle mass, which predisposes to loss of function and autonomy, rather than the existence of chronic diseases. A patient may suffer from chronic diseases, but would enter the frail elderly group when there is a loss of functional reserve that makes them vulnerable to stress situations, with a higher risk of serious health problems such as a major disability, hospitalization, institutionalization or even death in those cases in which serious complications appear. This loss of function is what decreases the quality of life because it results in a loss of autonomy.
The general recommendation is that those patients over 70 years with a weight loss of more than 5% in a year secondary to chronic diseases are evaluated, since they could be within this group of fragile elders. In addition to progressive weight loss due to chronic diseases, muscle weakness, fatigue with small efforts, slow gait or low level of physical activity are other indicators of frailty.
Intervention at this stage where there is a risk of disability, but has not yet appeared, is essential. In this type of patients, it is necessary to act in a special way through physical activity or rehabilitation programs , diet adapted to their nutritional needs and review of the pharmacological treatment (trying to reduce, as far as possible, the sedative treatments). The comprehensive management of the frail elderly includes the increase in physical activity. An adequate guideline can achieve an improvement in their nutritional status and the recovery of their functional capacity.
In those patients who are at nutritional risk , it would be advisable to improve the supply of nutrients and vitamins from the diet. If, despite this, energy needs are not met and the risk of malnutrition persists, diets such as Bi1 diacare hp / hc (in the case of patients with frailty and diabetes), Bi1 hp / hc (in patients with increased caloric-protein intake), Bi1 hp fiber (patients with moderate energy needs). Patients who require enteral nutrition by feeding tube, the formula will be prescribed according to the nutritional needs of the patient (Bi1 via hp / hc, Bi1 via fiber or Bi1 via Diacare).
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